Windstorm damage assessment tool (WISC)​

Tool description

Windstorms are among the costliest climate extremes in Europe. Estimates of damages mostly rely on post-disaster insurance data, which is often not publicly available. It is therefore difficult to model and assess windstorm damage. The WISC model provides an open-source model which gives damage estimates in line with reported damages from previous windstorms. Damage estimates show that the western part of Europe is greatly impacted by wind extremes.


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Complexity explanation

The tool gives expected annual damage caused by windstorms in Europe. The tool relies on open-source data and a python code has been supplied for users to implement or adjust the tool themselves.

Benefits of using the tool

  • Offers an open-source model, which gives a transparent and usable windstorm damage model.
  • Can be applied globally, if data are available.
  • Methodology is transferable to other types of hazards.

City Hub experiences

This tool can be used by:

  • Insurance companies
  • Real estate investors
  • Climate change researchers

Triple-A phases



Not available yet


Thijs Endendijk,

More information at

The link to the tool 

Guidance: Koks, E. E., & Haer, T. (2020). A high-resolution wind damage model for Europe. Scientific reports, 10(1), 6866.



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The climate story of Gdynia​

Short summary: A story about Jan and Maria during extreme precipitation.

Theme: Flooding

End user: Citizens

Link to the story: under construction